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Every year on this day, World Population Day is celebrated to bring awareness about the exploding world population and the importance of reproductive health. This year the World Population Day theme is 'Family planning is a human right'.
The primary aim in observing this day is to focus on the need and importance of controlling the world population. It also raises awareness about reproductive health because a large number of pregnant women succumb to poor reproductive health.
The Main Objectives Of World Population Day:
- This day is celebrated to empower young girls and boys.
- Educating the younger ones about reasonable and youth-friendly techniques to avoid pregnancies at an early age.
- Educating people to remove gender stereotypes from the society.
- Ensuring that education is necessary for girls and boys.
- Easy access to reproductive health care services to every couple.
- Educating people about sexually transmitted diseases and how can they be prevented.
- Demanding laws for protecting the girl child rights.
- Providing knowledge about sexuality and delaying marriages until you are ready to take the responsibilities that come with marriage.
What Is Reproductive Health?
Reproductive health is a state of complete mental, physical and social well-being and not only the absence of reproductive diseases. It deals with the reproductive processes, functions and system of all stages of life.
Types Of Reproductive Health
According to Centers For Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), these are the types of reproductive health issues:
1. Uterine Fibroids
These are the most common non-cancerous tumours which occur in women who are of child-bearing age. Fibroids are usually made of muscle cells and other tissues that grow in and around the wall of the uterus. The symptoms of uterine fibroids are lower back pain, urinating often, feeling full in the lower abdomen, painful periods, pain during sex, reproductive problems like infertility and multiple miscarriages.
It is a reproductive health problem that affects a woman's uterus. Endometriosis occurs when the normal tissue present in the uterus grows somewhere else, especially in the ovaries, behind the uterus, on the bladder and on the bowels. This misplaced tissue can cause infertility, pain and heavy periods.
Women who are infected with HIV get this virus by having sex with a man who is infected with HIV or by sharing needles with an infected person. Pregnant women should ensure their babies do not contract HIV and visit a health care provider to reduce the risk.
4. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
Polycystic ovary syndrome occurs when a woman's ovaries or adrenal glands produce more male hormones than normal which as a result forms as cysts in the ovaries. Obese people are more likely to have PCOS and are more at an increased risk of developing heart disease and diabetes.
5. Interstitial Cystitis
it is a chronic bladder condition resulting in recurring discomfort in the bladder. People suffering from this health condition have inflamed or irritated bladder walls that can cause stiffening of the bladder. The symptoms of interstitial cystitis include frequent urination, abdominal pain, tenderness, intense pain in the bladder, etc.
6. Sexual Violence
Sexual violence is a significant problem in India and all over the world. Sexual violence refers to the sexual activity where consent isn't obtained. The victims of sexual violence are mostly females than males.
7. Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Sexually transmitted diseases are caused due to bacterial, virus and parasites. Did you know there are more than 20 types of STDs and these affect both men and women?
Importance Of Reproductive Health
The importance lies in the fact that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life. They also have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if they want to reproduce or not. Reproductive health is important during childhood, adolescence and adulthood.
A reproductive health approach would differ from a family planning approach in many ways. For instance, managing infertility is difficult and expensive, but it can be prevented through appropriate care during the delivery and after it.
Also, it focuses on the importance and promotion of breastfeeding and its impact on reproductive health in several ways. This includes preventing certain post-partum problems, ovarian and breast cancer, and improving neonatal health.
Reproductive health should also address issues like unsafe abortion, reproductive tract infections, unwanted pregnancy, infertility, reproductive tract cancers, gender-based violence, malnutrition and anemia.
What Are The Factors Affecting Reproductive Health?
These include the following:
- Economic circumstances
- Family environment
- Social and gender relationships
Key Facts To Know
1. In developing countries, 214 million women of reproductive age who want to avoid pregnancy are not using a modern contraceptive method.
2. Family planning or contraception reduces the need for unsafe abortion.
3. Using condoms helps prevent the transmission of HIV.
4. To prevent unintended pregnancy, family planning or contraception is essential to avoid the deaths of mothers and children.
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