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White pepper is grey or white colour small globose of approx 3-4 mm. In common terms, it is known as 'safed mirch' and it comes from the same plant (Piper nigrum) as black pepper.
The difference between white and black pepper is that both are processed differently. While black peppercorns are picked after they get ripe and then dried out in the sun, white pepper is prepared by removing the outer cover of the seed before or after drying. Additionally, white pepper is more aromatic but turns bitter faster compared to black pepper.
White pepper is used mainly in light-coloured dishes. This tradition was first originated in French cookery, but later spread around the world. Now, it is commonly used in Chinese and Vietnamese soups and Swedish cuisines. 
Nutritional Value Of Black Pepper
100 g of white pepper contains 11.42 g water and 296 kcal energy. It also contains 10.4 g protein, 26.2 g fibre, 265 mg calcium, 14.31 mg iron, 90 mg magnesium, 73 mg potassium, 176 mg phosphorus, 5 mg sodium21 mg vitamin C and 10 mcg folate.
Health Benefits Of White Pepper
1. Helps in relieving pain: According to a study, white pepper contains an active phenolic compound that possesses anti-inflammatory effect. This helps in easing the pain from the affected body part and gives relief to the patient. 
2. Helps in aiding arthritis: The anti-inflammatory agents of white pepper arevery effective for the long-term treatment of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis. It also helps in aiding all types of joint pain. 
3. Helps to treat respiratory problems: This prized spice is highly valued for its therapeutic agents like pectic polysaccharide and oligosaccharides, which are helpful in curing cold, asthma and other respiratory problems. 
4. Prevents stomach ulcer: White pepper contains cimetidine, which improves the effect of gastric acid secretion for easy digestion of food. However, white pepper is 40 times less effective than histamine, which is naturally produced in the stomach. 
5. Heals headache: This aromatic spice contains an alkaloid named piperine which is very useful in healing headache and migraine by blocking the transmission of pain to the brain. 
6. Manages blood pressure: Piperine and flavonoid in white pepper help to keep the blood pressure in check. They also help in improving the blood circulation. 
7. Reduces oxidative stress: This white flavoured spice has antioxidant property due to the presence of polyphenols. This helps the body fight against foreign and harmful germs entering the body. 
8. Manages diabetes: Piperine in white pepper has an antidiabetic property which is effective in reducing glycemia and maintaining the blood sugar in the body. A mixture of curcumin and white pepper works best to control blood glucose. 
9. Helps to reduce toothache: β-Caryophyllene, the main constituent found in white pepper has an anti-inflammatory effect which helps to reduce toothache and other oral problems. 
10. Treats vitiligo: Vitiligo is a disorder of the skin recognised by loss of natural pigmentation. Piperine in white pepper promotes the excess production of melanocyte which, in turn, helps to treat the condition. 
11. Helps in weight management: White pepper helps to reduce body weight due to the presence of capsaicin. The compound has lipid-lowering and fat-reducing effects, which helps to burn the fat without changing the food appetite. 
Uses Of White Pepper
- It is used in preparing dishes like fish and soups.
- Add honey and white pepper to treat nasal tract infection and cold. 
- Add white pepper in foods prepared at your home to improve digestion.
- Combine white pepper with fennel seeds (sauf), almond powder and a bit of sugar for improving eyesight.
- Add a paste of white pepper directly on the skin to treat scabies. 
- It is also used for pickling and salad dressing.
- Essential oil made from white pepper extract is used in aromatherapy.
- Excess intake of white pepper can cause irritation.
- Individuals with conditions like ulcer, gastritis and kidney inflammatory disease should avoid using white pepper in excess. 
- Children should avoid the excess consumption of white pepper directly by mouth.
- Piperine in white pepper slows down the blood clotting. Therefore, a person with bleeding disorders should avoid having an excess of it. 
- Pregnant women should avoid taking it in excess as it produces extra heat which can be dangerous for the foetus.
White Pepper Hot And Sour Soup For Cold
- 1 square fresh tofu chopped in small pieces
- 5 cups water
- Salt to taste
- 1 pinch white pepper grounded
- 20-30 g sliced ginger
- 1 cup milk
- 1 green chopped onion
- Sesame (Til) oil or mustard oil
Pour water in a soup pot and add tofu. Let it become soft in the hot water. Add salt to taste, ginger, onions, and sesame oil. You can also add bamboo shoots, spring onion, or other green vegetables like broccoli. Add milk to make the mixture thick. Then sprinkle white pepper. Serve the soup hot.
-  Liang, Y. Z., Chen, H. M., Su, Z. Q., Hou, S. Z., Chen, X. Y., Zheng, Y. F., … Fu, L. D. (2014). White pepper and piperine have different effects on pharmacokinetics of puerarin in rats. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM, 2014, 796890. doi:10.1155/2014/796890
-  Bang, J. S., Oh, D. H., Choi, H. M., Sur, B. J., Lim, S. J., Kim, J. Y., … Kim, K. S. (2009). Anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic effects of piperine in human interleukin 1beta-stimulated fibroblast-like synoviocytes and in rat arthritis models. Arthritis research & therapy, 11(2), R49. doi:10.1186/ar2662
-  Khawas, S., Nosáľová, G., Majee, S. K., Ghosh, K., Raja, W., Sivová, V., & Ray, B. (2017). In vivo cough suppressive activity of pectic polysaccharide with arabinogalactan type II side chains of Piper nigrum fruits and its synergistic effect with piperine. International journal of biological macromolecules, 99, 335-342.
-  Ononiwu, I. M., Ibeneme, C. E., & Ebong, O. O. (2002). Effects of piperine on gastric acid secretion in albino rats. African journal of medicine and medical sciences, 31(4), 293-295.
-  Salehi, B., Zakaria, Z. A., Gyawali, R., Ibrahim, S. A., Rajkovic, J., Shinwari, Z. K., … Setzer, W. N. (2019). Piper Species: A Comprehensive Review on Their Phytochemistry, Biological Activities and Applications. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 24(7), 1364. doi:10.3390/molecules24071364
-  Hlavackova, L., Urbanova, A., Ulicna, O., Janega, P., Cerna, A., & Babal, P. (2010). Piperine, active substance of black pepper, alleviates hypertension induced by NO synthase inhibition. Bratislavske lekarske listy, 111(8), 426-431.
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-  Mihăilă, B., Dinică, R. M., Tatu, A. L., & Buzia, O. D. (2019). New insights in vitiligo treatments using bioactive compounds from Piper nigrum. Experimental and therapeutic medicine, 17(2), 1039–1044. doi:10.3892/etm.2018.6977
-  Shah, S. S., Shah, G. B., Singh, S. D., Gohil, P. V., Chauhan, K., Shah, K. A., & Chorawala, M. (2011). Effect of piperine in the regulation of obesity-induced dyslipidemia in high-fat diet rats. Indian journal of pharmacology, 43(3), 296–299. doi:10.4103/0253-7613.81516
-  Hai-Long, Z., Shimin, C., & Yalan, L. (2015). Some Chinese folk prescriptions for wind-cold type common cold. Journal of traditional and complementary medicine, 5(3), 135–137. doi:10.1016/j.jtcme.2014.11.035
-  Shenefelt PD. Herbal Treatment for Dermatologic Disorders. In: Benzie IFF, Wachtel-Galor S, editors. Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. 2nd edition. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2011. Chapter 18.
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-  Son, D. J., Akiba, S., Hong, J. T., Yun, Y. P., Hwang, S. Y., Park, Y. H., & Lee, S. E. (2014). Piperine inhibits the activities of platelet cytosolic phospholipase A2 and thromboxane A2 synthase without affecting cyclooxygenase-1 activity: different mechanisms of action are involved in the inhibition of platelet aggregation and macrophage inflammatory response. Nutrients, 6(8), 3336–3352. doi:10.3390/nu6083336