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India is widely known for Ayurveda, an alternative medicine system that includes a range of treatment methods for diseases of any kind (mental or physical) through herbal or natural remedies. Since ancient times, cow's urine or gomutra is a vital part of the Indian tradition for its important medical uses and holistic approach.
A study mentions that the therapeutic benefits of cow urine have been explained thoroughly in Ayurveda; Ashtanga Sangraha, Sushruta Samhita and other traditional books regard it as one of the components of Panchagavya (healthy products from a cow that includes curd, dung, milk, ghee and urine). 
However, cow urine has certain limitations and can be harmful when used in the wrong formulations. It is advisable to consult a medical expert before its usage. Take a look at some of the supposed benefits of cow urine.
1. May have antibacterial activity
Cow urine (CU) has antibacterial activity against bacteria like E. coli, Salmonella typhi, S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes and many more. The efficacy of the urine is found to be similar to several antibacterial drugs such as ofloxacin and ampicillin.  Cow urine is also effective against several drug resistance bacteria.
2. May have antioxidant property
The antioxidant property of cow urine is due to the presence of uric acid and allantoin. These compounds prevent cell death and help in their survival. The antioxidant property of cow urine help scavenges free radicals and prevent multiple diseases caused due to them, especially chronic and inflammatory diseases. 
3. May have anti-diabetic effect
In a study, gomutra had shown a significant decrease in blood sugar levels, although the decrease was less than glyburide (a diabetic medicine). It was also concluded from the study that cow urine shows no toxicity even when it was given multiple times. However, further studies are needed. 
4. May have immune-enhancing property
Ancient books related to Ayurveda state that daily consumption of cow urine improves the body resistant to diseases by 104 per cent. Cow urine enhances the immune response and increases phagocytic activity, that significantly boosts the immunity. It is widely regarded as a safe and a potent immunomodulator. 
5. May have antifungal effect
The antifungal effect of cow urine can be due to the presence of phenolic acids like gallic, cinnamic, ferulic and salicylic acids. It is very effective against fungi of Candida species and also inhibits the growth of cow's urine resistant strains up to certain levels. 
6. May have wound-healing properties
A study has shown the wound healing properties of cow urine. It helps improve wound contraction, increase the formation of granulation tissue over wounds to fill them and thus, promotes wound healing. The study was carried out on diabetes-induced mice. Therefore, further studies are needed in the area. 
7. May have antiparasitic activity
Cow urine has anthelmintic agents that help remove intestinal parasites in humans. The agents are more effective compared to piperazine citrate, an effective drug to treat worm infections, tapeworms or other intestinal roundworms parasites. 
8. May act as a bio enhancer
Bio enhancer are agents that increase the efficacy of active substance present in a drug, when combined, without any therapeutic activity of its own. Cow urine is added to many medicines to increase their effectiveness and decrease their dose. It makes for the best low-cost and economically available bio enhancer. 
9. May have anti-cancer properties
The antioxidant property of cow urine is responsible for its anti-cancer activity by reducing the oxidative damage and preventing cell proliferation. It also facilitates good immunity for prevention of chronic diseases like cancer. Also, the bio enhancing approach enhances cancer-based drugs and helps in the treatment. 
10. May have anti-poisonous properties
Cow urine is known to relieve from ‘visha' or poisoning. In Bhavaprakasha (Ayurvedic literature), the anti-poisonous effect of the urine is mentioned. It states that cow urine helps kill poison of many types. It also mentions the purification of many poisonous chemicals by cow urine.
11. May cure skin problems
In Susruta and Charak (ancient books on medicine and surgery), medicinal properties of cow urine for skin problems, including vitiligo is mentioned. It inhibits the growth of fungus on the skin and prevents diseases related to them. The effectiveness of cow urine in controlling the fungi growth is high compared to rice water, lemon juice and neem extract. 
Disadvantages Of Cow Urine
Cow urine has certain downsides or may cause side effects when not used in a proper amount or with wrong formulations. Some disadvantages of cow urine include:
- Can cause eye injury when taken as an eye drop to treat eye-related ailments. It can be added with other herbs but when used as the main ingredient, the internal portion of eyes can get damaged. 
- Can cause slow and ineffective breathing.
- Can cause heart problems. 
- Can slow down the nervous system.
- Can cause the death of a person.
1. What does cow urine contain?
According to an International Journal of Research, cow's urine contains compounds like sodium, iron, manganese, chlorine, silicon, magnesium, tartaric acid, calcium, vitamins (A, B, C, D, E), lactose, minerals, nitrogen and creatinine.
2. Is cow urine a disinfectant?
Many studies have shown the benefits of cow's urine on the human body. However, very few studies talk about its usage as a disinfectant.
3. Is Gomutra harmful?
Cow's urine can be harmful when used in the wrong formulations. It is known to improve the effectiveness of a drug or herb but can be harmful when used as the main ingredient.