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Common Causes Of Blindness In Children And Adults

By Sravia Sivaram

Blindness occurs due to low vision or visual impairment in one or both the eyes. This type of visual impairment cannot be corrected by glasses or contact lenses.

There are various reasons why people are impaired visually. Blindness is also commonly found in individuals who are over 50 years of age.

This article deals with some of the common causes of blindness. Loss of vision can occur suddenly or gradually over time. Sudden loss of vision may not necessarily mean blindness. Sudden blindness can occur in one eye or both the eyes and the loss of sight can be partial or total.

When total vision loss occurs, the sight in the affected eye is lost completely. With partial loss take place, some sight may remain in the affected area. There are several causes of sudden blindness and this article will help you know about it.

Sudden vision loss includes loss of peripheral vision, loss of central vision or even sudden blurring of vision. Sometimes, the sudden appearance of spots in the eye can also turn out to be a symptom of some serious condition.

There are several causes of blindness that you need to know, so continue reading further to know all about it


1. Cataracts:

This is a common cause of blindness in the elderly. Some of the major symptoms of this include blurry vision, not being able to see in the night, fading colours and double vision.


2. Macular Degeneration:

This occurs mostly at the age of 60 years and above. This disease damages the central vision. This affects the ability to read, write and drive.


3. Glaucoma:

This affects the optic nerve and leads to blindness. It occurs when the fluid pressure slowly increases inside the eye, thus damaging the optic nerve. This is one of the top causes of blindness.


4. Diabetic Retinopathy:

This is caused by diabetes. This affects the retina and results in blindness among adults. It can cause vision loss in people diagnosed with diabetes at the age of 18 years or more.


5. Rubella:

Rubella is usually associated with blindness. This disease can pass from a mother to an unborn child and hence preventive measures must be taken to prevent this.


6. Ophthalmia Neonatorum:

This disease refers to the inflammation in the eyes of a newborn. It is caused when the bacteria from the birth canal of the mother moves into the eyes of the baby.


7. Optic Nerve Hypoplasia And Optic Nerve Atrophy:

Optic nerve hypoplasia results from a condition after birth or maybe due to inheritance as well. It occurs due to loss of blood supply to the optic nerve. Optic nerve atrophy occurs when there is a deficiency of optic nerve fibres that may occur along with defects or disabilities.


8. Eye Injuries And Burns:

The protective glands of the eye will be worn out in the case of eye injuries and burns and hence this increases the risk of vision loss or blindness. This is one of the top causes of blindness.


9. Myopia:

Myopia can be fixed by wearing corrective glasses. Some people may not be able to see well even after wearing this. This is due to complications like cataracts and retinal detachments and many more.


10. Retinal Breaks:

Due to ageing process or genetics, people may have breaks in their retina, and this may lead to blindness. This condition occurs as result of the degeneration of the retina.

Story first published: Monday, February 20, 2017, 16:30 [IST]
Read more about: eye vision blindness cataract