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Pituitary is the master gland which is about the size of a pea and is situated in the base of the brain. It is called the "Master gland" as it controls the functions of the other endocrine glands. It has got two parts: Anterior and posterior.
The hormones secreted by the pituitary gland are:
Growth hormone regulates growth in children, improves quality of life in adults.
Prolactin stimulates milk production in women after giving birth
ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) - to stimulate the adrenal glands
TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) stimulates thyroid gland
FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) stimulates the ovaries and testes
LH (luteinizing hormone) - to stimulate the ovaries or testes
ADH (antidiuretic hormone) – to increase absorption of water into the blood by the kidneys
Oxytocin - to contract the uterus during childbirth and stimulate milk production
Features of hormone deficiency or excess include the following
Growth Hormone - Acromegaly in adults Gigantism in children
Prolactin – Galactorrhoea irregular cycle & infertility in women impotence & infertility in men
TSH – Features of excess thyroid hormones like sweating, palpitation, weight loss, anxiety, restlessness.
ACTH – Excess weight gain, easy, bruisability of skin, increased blood pressure& blood sugar, menstrual irregularities
LH/FSH – Very rare, usually do not have symptoms
Growth Hormone - Metabolic derangement in adults stunted growth in children.
Prolactine - Decreased milk production after childbirth
TSH – Features of low thyroid hormones like excess weight gain, lethargy, dry skin, constipation
ACTH – Fatigability, low blood pressure, low sugar & excessive weakness.
LH/FSH – Menstrual irregularities, vaginal dryness, loss of libido, infertility in women & impotence, loss of secondary sexual characteristic & infertility in men.