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Expert Article: Knee Replacement Surgery In India

Knee replacement surgery is one of the most widely done orthopaedic procedures worldwide.

In addition to ageing, the urban lifestyle has contributed to various muscular and skeletal issues, such as persistent knee pain. When oral medication and physical therapy are ineffective, surgery is recommended. Clinical results and patient satisfaction are now incomparable, thanks to recent technological advancements.

Prevalence of Knee Replacement in India

Statistics predict a high rate of increase in joint replacements in India between 2020 and 2026. Osteoarthritis of the knee in India is 15 times more prevalent than in the west. Studies say that the genetic composition and the regular activities of Indians are unfriendly to the knee. More than 15 crore Indians suffer from knee pain of some kind, of which about four crore Indians have to undergo knee replacement surgery.

With the increase in the volume of patients seeking knee and hip replacements, efficient technology is required to perform the surgery faster with minimal post-surgical risks.

There has been a paradigm shift in the technology used for knee replacement surgeries in India. In the present era of artificial intelligence (AI) and computer sciences, biomedical engineering has reached its zenith.

Indications for a knee replacement surgery:

When the classical signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis fail to be relieved by conservative means.

When is knee replacement surgery not advised?

● Severe comorbidities
● Any infection present
● Nerve-related issues in the joint
● The skin over the knee is affected
● Poor blood supply to the joint
● Psychological problems
● Poor patient motivation

What is knee replacement surgery?

Knee replacement surgery, also called knee arthroplasty ( KA), can be of 2 types:

1. Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)
2. Partial Knee Arthroplasty ( PKA)

Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA): All surfaces of the knee joint are replaced for smoother functioning.

Partial Knee Arthroplasty (PKA): When any of the 3 compartments of the knee are affected by osteoarthritis, only a part of the knee is replaced.

Advantages of PKA:

● Faster recovery
● Faster rehabilitation
● Less post-surgical trauma
● Less invasive

Disadvantages of PKA:

● Incomplete elimination of pain
● The probability of a TKA in the future

Techniques for knee replacement surgery:

1. Traditional knee replacement surgery:

This involves the incision of the quadriceps tendon and the complete turnover of the kneecap to access the arthritic joint. The recovery time is longer in this technique.

2. Minimally invasive knee replacement surgery:

Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) involves a shorter incision cut and the kneecap being pushed to the side and not turned over. The implants placed are similar to traditional surgery.

Advantages of the minimally invasive knee replacement surgery:

● Faster recovery time
● Quicker healing
● No complications of bleeding and blood clots
● Mobility of the joint is enhanced as the tendons and muscles are not incised

3. Computer-assisted surgery (CAS):

The scans of the knee joint are registered on a computer that generates a 3-D model of the knee. The software aids the surgeons in precise and less invasive surgery.

Complications of knee replacement surgery:

● Knee stiffness and reduced mobility
● Nerve damage around the knee
● Bleeding at the site
● Residual blood clots

Conclusion

The projected scores for successful knee replacements in India by the year 2026 are commendable.
Cuvis joint replacement is one of the latest developments in this field, which involves AI and robotics to perform knee surgery. Stay tuned to learn more!

Story first published: Sunday, July 31, 2022, 11:38 [IST]
Read more about: knee replacement bone health
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