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Diabetes in children (juvenile diabetes) is overwhelming, especially when it begins at a very early age. Type 1 diabetes is common in children, an autoimmune condition in which the pancreatic beta cells are destroyed, leading to the insufficient production of insulin and causing high blood sugar levels. Though type 2 diabetes also affects children probably due to obesity, the prevalence is less compared to adults.
According to a study published in the year 2018, the incidence of diabetes type 1 is rising in children and adolescence, with around 22.9 new cases per year per one lakh children up to the age of 15. 
Early diagnosis and initial treatment of children with diabetes are essential. Type 1 diabetes show symptoms rapidly within a few weeks while type 2 diabetes symptoms develop slowly over time Parents must be aware of diabetes symptoms in their children, which are sometimes hard to detect. Keep an eye on these symptoms of diabetes in children and consult a medical expert soon.
1. Polydipsia or excessive thirst
Polydipsia or excessive thirst can be caused due to diabetes insipidus in children. In this diabetes type, there's an imbalance of fluids in the body causing excessive thirst, even if you had drunk something a minutes ago. 
2. Polyuria or frequent urination
Polyuria is often followed by polydipsia. When the body glucose spikes, the kidney is signalled to remove extra glucose from the body through urination. This result in polyuria, which in turn, causes excessive need to drink water or polydipsia.
If you observe that your child is hungry all the time, and even excessive food intake is unable to fulfil them, consult a medical expert as it may be a sign of diabetes. Without insulin, the body is unable to use glucose for energy, and this lack of energy causes increased hunger. 
4. Unexplained weight loss
Another symptom of diabetes mellitus in children is unexplained weight loss. Children suffering from diabetes tend to lose a lot of weight in a very short time. This is because, when glucose conversion to energy is restricted due to low production of insulin, the body starts burning muscle and stored fats for energy, causing unexplained weight loss. 
Fruity-smell breath is due to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKS), a condition that arises due to the lack of insulin in the body. It is considered a fatal diabetes symptom in children. Here, in the absence of glucose, the body starts burning fat for energy, and the process produces ketones (blood acids). The typical smell of ketones can be identified by the fruit-like smell in the breath. 
6. Behavioural problems
According to a study, behavioural problems in diabetic children is greater compared to non-diabetic children. Around 20 out of 80 diabetic children show bad behaviour such as breaking the diet, high temper, introversion or resisting discipline and authority. This can be due to several factors such as tolerant of the disease, strict regimentation at home, extra attention to a normal sibling by parents or the feeling of ‘being different' among others. All these factors can lead to mood change, anxiousness and depression. 
7. Darkening of the skin
Acanthosis nigricans (AN) or darkening of the skin is commonly linked to diabetes. In children and teenagers, the common site of AN is the posterior neck. Thickening and darkening of the skin folds are mainly due to hyperinsulinemia caused as a result of insulin resistance. 
8. Always tired
Fatigue or a feeling of tiredness all the time can easily be identified in diabetic children. A type 1 diabetic child does not have enough insulin to convert glucose into energy. The lack of energy thus, makes them tired easily or after a small physical activity. 
9. Vision problems
The prevalence of the ocular disease in diabetic children is more compared to normal ones. The high blood sugar damages the nerves of the eyes and causes eye problems such as blurred vision or total blindness, if diabetes is not controlled after being diagnosed. This diabetes symptom in children is overlooked most of the times. 
10. Yeast infection
A study has shown that yeast infection is higher in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, especially in girls suffering from the condition. Gut microbiota is an important factor that prevents the occurrence of autoimmune diseases like diabetes. When high body glucose disturbs the microbiota, the growth of microorganisms get influenced, leading to their increased production that contribute to yeast infection. 
11. Delayed wound healing
High blood sugar in the body disrupts the functioning of the immune system, increases inflammation, prevents glucose conversion to energy and leads to the reduced blood supply to body parts. All these factors cause delayed wound healing in children, leading to more serious complications.
1. How does a child get diabetes?
The exact cause of diabetes in children is unknown but factors like family history, early exposure to infection and autoimmune disorders can be the cause of diabetes in children.
2. What are the three most common symptoms of undiagnosed diabetes?
The three most common symptoms of undiagnosed diabetes include polydipsia or excessive thirst, polyuria or excessive urination and extreme hunger.
3. Can a child have type 2 diabetes?
Though type 2 diabetes is considered adult-onset diabetes, it can also affect children, especially those who are overweight or obese.