- Technology Airtel, Vodafone To Raise Mobile Services Rates Next Month
- Automobiles Volkswagen T-Roc Spotted Testing In India For The First Time Ahead Of Launch: Spy Pics & Details
- News SC to hear petitions filed by ‘The Kashmir Times’ editor and Cong leader
- Movies Hrithik Roshan's Dancing Video As A Kid Goes Viral; Netizens Can't Get Enough Of His Awesome Moves!
- Finance How To Buy Fastag From SBI?
- Sports Doncic joins LeBron after 40-point triple-double, Clippers edge Thunder
- Travel Igatpuri – A Perfect Travel Destination
- Education JEE Main 2020 Sample Question Paper With Solution For Numerical Value Section
The loss of a limb (amputation) is a life-changing experience. It's an extreme physical loss and is emotionally devastating (especially when it is sudden and one is not prepared for it). The way one deals with this loss is quite dependent on the character and attitude of the person. It is important for the person to realize and accept the truth. A caring friend or a mental health professional  can be of great help at this stage. One is able to lead a happier life when he or she is able to accept the new physical image.
It might be of great importance to know the reasons involved behind limb amputation, the procedure involved and the aftercare that the patient requires.
What Is Limb Amputation?
Amputation is the surgical removal of all or part of a limb (arm, leg, foot, toe, hand or finger). The most common amputation surgery is the amputation of the leg  (either above or below the knee). Amputation can be done to treat disease, injury or infection. It can also be done in order to remove tumours from muscles and bones  .
Reasons For Limb Amputation
The most common reason behind amputation is poor circulation that leads to narrowing or damage of arteries (known as a peripheral arterial disease). When there is lack of proper/adequate blood flow, the cells are unable to get oxygen and nutrients which they need from the bloodstream  . This leads to the affected tissue dying causing infection. This issue occurs mostly between the ages of 50 to 75.
The following are some of the other possible reasons for amputation  :
- Presence of cancerous tumour in the muscle or bone of the limb
- Thickening of nerve tissue (neuroma)
- Severe injury (for instance, due to a vehicle accident or serious burn)
- Severe infection that does not heal with antibiotics or other treatment options
Preparing For A Limb Amputation
Outlined below are some of the common steps that you might be asked to follow prior to amputation. However, always talk to your surgeon beforehand and seek his or her guidance on the dos and don'ts.
- You will be asked to sign a consent form  . Read the form carefully before signing and ask questions if you have any doubt.
- Apart from getting to know your complete medical history, your doctor might also want you to undergo a physical examination to ensure that you are otherwise healthy.
- Mostly you will be asked to fast for 8 hours before the surgery  .
- In case you are pregnant or feel you might be, please inform your surgeon.
- The surgeon should be informed about any sensitivity or allergy issues (especially with medication) that you might have. In some rare cases, patients might be allergic to tape, latex, local and general anaesthesia  .
- Inform your surgeon about all the medicines that you are currently taking along with herbal supplements if any.
- Inform the surgeon if you have had any past history of bleeding disorders.
- The surgeon should be informed about any blood-thinning medicines that you might be taking. You might need to stop these medications prior to the surgical procedure.
- A sedative might be given for you to relax.
The Limb Amputation Procedure
After the surgery, you would most likely stay in the hospital for about 5 to 14 days (sometimes more) depending on the complications post-surgery  . The surgical procedure itself may vary depending on the limb (or extremity) being amputated along with the patient's general health condition.
The amputation could either be done under general anaesthesia or spinal anaesthesia (numbs the body from the waist down). During the amputation procedure, the surgeon would remove all the damaged tissues leaving only as much healthy tissue as possible  .
The following are the methods that a surgeon follows to determine where to cut and how much tissue to remove  :
- Comparing the skin temperature of the affected limb with a healthy part of the limb
- Checking for a pulse close to the region where a cut is being planned
- Looking out for regions that show visibly reddened skin
- Checking the site of cut to see if it is still sensitive to touch or not.
The following is performed by the surgeon during the amputation procedure  :
- Smoothening the uneven areas of bone
- Removal of diseased tissue and any crushed bone
- Sealing blood vessels and nerves
- Cutting and shaping muscles so that the stump (end of the remaining limb) can be considered for an artificial appliance (prosthesis).
When the wound is closed right away by sewing the skin flaps it is called closed amputation. This is done if there is minimal risk of infection. The surgeon may also choose to leave the site open for several days. This is called open flap amputation. This is done so that any infected tissue can be cleaned off. Once the stump tissue is free of infection, the skin flaps would be sutured together to close the wound  .
What To Expect After A Limb Amputation
In the hospital
Once the procedure is done, you will be taken to a recovery room. You will be under constant monitoring. The blood flow and feeling of the affected extremity will be regularly checked. Once the patient's pulse, blood pressure and breathing is stable, he or she will be moved to the hospital room  . The dressing is regularly changed and the patient will be put on antibiotics and pain medicines.
Physical therapy is started soon after surgery  . The rehabilitation processes involved might include gentle stretches or special exercises depending on the patient's condition. In case of a leg amputation, the patient is trained on how to bear weight on the remaining limb  .
An artificial limb can be used as soon as the wound shows good signs of healing. A prosthetist would be able to help the patient with the fitting of an artificial limb  .
The patient will be discharged from the hospital once the wound has healed to a great extent and also only after he or she is able to take personalized care with minimum assistance.
It is important that you sincerely follow all the instructions given by your doctor. You would have received detailed instructions about how to care for the surgical site, bathing, activity levels, dressing changes and physical therapy. Continue taking the prescribed pain relievers for soreness.
Approach your surgeon immediately in case of any of the following  :
- Increased pain around the amputation site
- Numbness or tingling sensation in the remaining limb
- Fever or chills
- Redness or swelling around the site of the incision
- Bleeding or leakage of other fluid from the incision site
You may continue with a normal diet (unless advised differently).
Keeping in mind the immense advances that have been made in the fields of surgery, rehabilitation and prosthetic design, proper healing and fitting of an artificial limb can help in the reduction of risk associated with post-surgery complications.
If the amputation was a result of peripheral artery disease, then your doctor would need to intervene further to ensure that the condition does not affect other parts of your body. The following lifestyle changes might be advised  :
- Stop smoking
- Maintain a regular exercise regime
- Maintain a healthy diet (low in saturated fat and cholesterol)
- Work out towards maintaining ideal body weight
The Need For Physical Therapy
A necessity that is most of the time ignored is the need for physical therapy after the amputation. Although, it is highly likely that a person who has just lost a limb will be extremely depressed and for him or her to indulge in physical therapy can be quiet a task, it is definitely worth the effort. Even though it is hard work, therapy loosens the residual limb and increases muscle tone and coordination. With continuous physical therapy, your joints will remain flexible. With this, you would also get a better understanding of how to use your prosthesis properly alongside carrying out your daily activities  .
Risks Of Limb Amputation
- Heart diseases
- Any infection
The complications associated with amputation could be as follows  :
- Wound opening
- Tissue death
- Joint deformity
- Haematoma (a bruised area with blood that gets collected under the skin)
- A blood clot in the deep veins in the limb
Preventing Limb Amputation
If you are currently suffering from a severe, chronic wound and believe that amputation will most likely be the next step, then you need to reconsider your belief. Amputation is not always a necessity. However, it is also true that the doctor knows best and if you have been advised to go ahead with an amputation, then that is definitely the best choice for you and your medical condition. Nevertheless, if you would want to lower the chances of you undergoing an amputation procedure, then consider doing the following:
- Indulge in a good wound care routine.
- Ensure that your wound is free of infection  (this is the best way to prevent an amputation)
- Always keep ample stock of wound care supplies so that you can easily perform wound care at home.
- In case you are unable to do everything on your own, hire a medical help.
- In case you suffer from diabetes, you would need to regularly keep checking your feet and leg for diabetic ulcers  .
- People should follow a lifestyle that can ensure proper maintenance of blood sugar levels (this would help in avoiding neuropathy and keep circulation healthy, especially for people with diabetes).
-  Sahu, A., Sagar, R., Sarkar, S., & Sagar, S. (2016). Psychological effects of amputation: A review of studies from India.Industrial psychiatry journal,25(1), 4–10.
-  Bhuvaneswar, C. G., Epstein, L. A., & Stern, T. A. (2007). Reactions to amputation: recognition and treatment.Primary care companion to the Journal of clinical psychiatry,9(4), 303–308.
-  Clasper, J., & Ramasamy, A. (2013). Traumatic amputations.British journal of pain,7(2), 67–73.
-  Huang, Y. Y., Lin, C. W., Yang, H. M., Hung, S. Y., & Chen, I. W. (2018). Survival and associated risk factors in patients with diabetes and amputations caused by infectious foot gangrene.Journal of foot and ankle research,11, 1.
-  Lazzarini, P. A., Clark, D., & Derhy, P. H. (2011). What are the major causes of lower limb amputations in a major Australian teaching hospital? The Queensland Diabetic Foot Innovation Project, 2006 – 2007.Journal of Foot and Ankle Research,4(Suppl 1), O24.
-  Nandimath O. V. (2009). Consent and medical treatment: The legal paradigm in India.Indian journal of urology : IJU : journal of the Urological Society of India,25(3), 343–347.
-  Longchamp, A., Harputlugil, E., Corpataux, J. M., Ozaki, C. K., & Mitchell, J. R. (2017). Is Overnight Fasting before Surgery Too Much or Not Enough? How Basic Aging Research Can Guide Preoperative Nutritional Recommendations to Improve Surgical Outcomes: A Mini-Review.Gerontology,63(3), 228–237.
-  Kulkarni, S. J., Kelkar, V. P., & Nayak, P. P. (2014). Anesthesia in a patient with multiple allergies.Journal of anaesthesiology, clinical pharmacology,30(3), 433–434.
-  Baumfeld, D., Baumfeld, T., Macedo, B., Zambelli, R., Lopes, F., & Nery, C. (2018). FACTORS RELATED TO AMPUTATION LEVEL AND WOUND HEALING IN DIABETIC PATIENTS.Acta ortopedica brasileira,26(5), 342–345.
-  Kadam D. (2013). Limb salvage surgery.Indian journal of plastic surgery : official publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India,46(2), 265–274.
-  Rink, C. L., Wernke, M. M., Powell, H. M., Tornero, M., Gnyawali, S. C., Schroeder, R. M., … Sen, C. K. (2017). Standardized Approach to Quantitatively Measure Residual Limb Skin Health in Individuals with Lower Limb Amputation.Advances in wound care,6(7), 225–232.
-  Bowker, J. H. (1990). Surgical techniques for conserving tissue and function in lower-limb amputation for trauma, infection, and vascular disease.Instructional course lectures,39, 355-360.
-  Senkowsky, J., Money, M. K., & Kerstein, M. D. (1990). Lower extremity amputation: open versus closed.Angiology,41(3), 221-227.
-  Olind-Sørensen, V. K., & Marqversen, J. (1979). Distal Blood Pressure Measurement in Lower-Limb Amputees.Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica,50(5), 571-572.
-  Geertzen, J. H. B., Martina, J. D., & Rietman, H. S. (2001). Lower limb amputation part 2: Rehabilitation-A 10 year literature review.Prosthetics and Orthotics International,25(1), 14-20.
-  Cole, G. L., & Millis, D. (2017). The effect of limb amputation on standing weight distribution in the remaining three limbs in dogs.Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology,30(01), 59-61.
-  Pezzin, L. E., Dillingham, T. R., MacKenzie, E. J., Ephraim, P., & Rossbach, P. (2004). Use and satisfaction with prosthetic limb devices and related services.Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation,85(5), 723-729.
-  Ajibade, A., Akinniyi, O. T., & Okoye, C. S. (2013). Indications and complications of major limb amputations in Kano, Nigeria.Ghana medical journal,47(4), 185–188.
-  Ramirez-Tortosa, M. C., Urbano, G., Lopez-Jurado, M., Nestares, T., Gomez, M. C., González, J., ... & Gil, A. (1999). Lifestyle changes in free-living patients with peripheralvascular disease (Fontaine stage II) related to plasma and LDL lipid composition: a 15 month follow-up study.Clinical Nutrition,18(5), 281-289.
-  Soyer, K., Unver, B., Tamer, S., & Ulger, O. (2016). The importance of rehabilitation concerning upper extremity amputees: A Systematic review.Pakistan journal of medical sciences,32(5), 1312–1319.
-  Hagberg, E., Berlin, Ö. K., & Renström, P. (1992). Function after through-knee compared with below-knee and above-knee amputation.Prosthetics and Orthotics International,16(3), 168-173.
-  Rodrigues, B. T., Vangaveti, V. N., & Malabu, U. H. (2016). Prevalence and Risk Factors for Diabetic Lower Limb Amputation: A Clinic-Based Case Control Study.Journal of diabetes research,2016, 5941957.
-  Low, E. E., Inkellis, E., & Morshed, S. (2017). Complications and revision amputation following trauma-related lower limb loss.Injury,48(2), 364-370.
-  Burdette-Taylor M. S. (2015). Prevent Wounds by Conducting a Comprehensive Foot Examination and Intervention.Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland),3(3), 586–592.
-  Hunt D. (2009). Diabetes: foot ulcers and amputations.BMJ clinical evidence,2009, 0602.