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Goddess Durga is the one who has devoured numerous demons; saved her devotees a number of times and blessed them with her love always. Goddess Durga is just another form of Maya (illusion), when she attacks the demons and is the the best embodiment of a mother's love when she blesses her devotees.
Stories abound about the way she has liberated the Earth from the demons, many a times. In the Hindu pantheon, she is often depicted as carrying many weapons, while riding on a lion or a tiger. She is seen killing a demon, the most common one being Mahishasura, though there were many that she killed.
In Shaktism , she is also seen as the wife of Lord Shiva, for she is believed to be just another form of Goddess Sati.
The Demon Durgasura
Once there lived a demon by name Durgasura. He sat for a deep penance, in order to please Lord Brahma. When pleased by his hard penance, Lord Brahma asked him for his wish. Durgasura wanted to become immortal. He asked God to bless him such that he will never be defeated by humans, gods or other demons.
Brahma, all together, gave the boon that he will not be destroyed by any masculine power. Elated, Durgasura roamed about declaring that he had become invincible. He conquered all the three worlds, and started torturing the Gods.
Overconfident and full of pride, he thought of attacking the Mount Kailash. However, he was still afraid of Lord Shiva, because of which he started seeking a chance when Shiva would not be around and he would establish his army there, not knowing about the powers of Lord Shiva's wife Goddess Parvati (another form of Goddess Sati).
Durgasura Attacked Mount Kailash
One day, when Lord Shiva was nowhere to be seen on Mount Kailash, Durgasura headed with his army towards the mount. However, while Narad Muni had already overheard his plans, he told the gods about him.
When Narad Muni went to Lord Vishnu with the news, he said that Durgasura might not be killed by masculine powers, but the female Goddesses could still kill him. Therefore, the gods prayed to Goddess Parvati who would be there when Shiva wasn't on the mount, and who had already known this through meditation. She promised the gods that she will liberate them from the demon.
Goddess Defeated The Demon
When Durgasura, after controlling all the worlds, reached Kailash, Goddess Parvati retaliated with a fierce form of hers, in which she sat on a lion, had eighteen hands, each carrying a deadly weapon given by a God. Seeing this form of hers, the demon laughed at once, underestimating the powers of the Goddess before the boon.
Little did he realize that the boon was meant for the masculine power and not feminine. But as the Goddess attacked him with the trident, the demon fell and lost his powers. He tried all he could to revert with a more powerful attack, but all in vain.
After he had tried all of his weapons, the Goddess attacked him once again, this time targeting the trident at his chest. With the attack, the demon fell and died.
Thus Goddess Durga Got Her Name
Happy and relieved, the gods thanked Goddess Parvati and praised her. Since she had brought death to the demon Durgasura, hence this form of hers was named Durga.