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World Population Day is observed on 11 July. Established in 1989 by the Governing Council of the United Nations Development Program, it is intended with the aim of increasing awareness on population issues. In comparison to the global population of 5.25 billion in 1989, the number has increased to 7.7 billion as of 2019 and it is expected to reach 8.5 billion by 2030. And by the end of the century, we are looking at a doubling of the population in comparison to that of 1989  .
Impact Of Overpopulation
In the current scenario itself, overpopulation has reached an extent where it is exceeding the carrying capacity of the ecological setting. Lack of resources and favourable living conditions have already begun to affect people all around the globe, especially the underdeveloped or third world countries  .
According to global statistics, approximately 81 million people are added to the population each year. Overpopulation is one of the major issues affecting the natural balance. On taking a closer look you come to understand that overpopulation is the root cause of each and every problem affecting the earth.
From depletion of natural resources to accelerated habitat loss, amplified climate change and global warming, loss of biodiversity, depreciation of freshwater, lower life expectancy and diminished quality of life, emergence of new pandemics and epidemics to intensive farming practices and a significant rise in unemployment, crime rate and violence - overpopulation knows no boundaries   .
With time, not only the third world countries be affected by the fastest-growing population, but even the developing countries will face the consequences.
Countries With Fastest-growing Population
China is the most populous country in the world with a population exceeding 1.4 billion, with India being in the second place. But on considering the countries with the fastest-growing population, the ranking is different. Though countries such as China, India, and the United States are among the most populated countries, their growth rates are not among the fastest  .
According to the review carried out by population data-gathering organization Population Reference Bureau, the countries with the fastest-growing populations have been identified through the method of projected population growth - a method which predicts that the human population is likely to keep growing until 2100; and the top five countries with the fastest-growing population are as follows  :
With a current population of 22.2 million, Niger is a country in West Africa and ranks the highest in the list. The projected population by 2030 is expected to be 34.0 million, with projected population growth from 2018-2030 being 53.5 per cent. The population is expected to jump from 22.2 million to 63.1 million by 2050 - a projected growth rate of 184.23 per cent.
2. São Tomé and Príncipe
Located on the west coast of Africa, the island nation comes second with a population of 0.2 million. The projected population by 2030 is expected to be 0.3 million, with projected population growth from 2018-2030 being 50 per cent.
The second-largest oil producer in sub-Saharan Africa, the country has rich natural resources and economic potential. It has a population of 30.4 million. The projected population by 2030 is expected to be 45.4 million, with projected population growth from 2018-2030 being 49.3 per cent. The high fertility rate of the country is expected to increase the population by a big per cent of 170 by 2050.
4. The Democratic Republic of the Congo
One of the most vulnerable countries in terms of health and wealth, Congo has a population of 84.3 million. Struggling with rampant measles and cholera outbreak, the country has a high rate of Ebola diseases reported as well. The projected population by 2030 is expected to be 124.3 million and projected population growth from 2018-2030 being 47.4 per cent.
5. Equatorial Guinea
Though the country has a high gross domestic product, the population in Guinea has been on a constant hike from 2008. With a current population of 1.3 million, the projected population by 2030 is expected to be 1.9 million. The projected population growth from 2018-2030 being 46.2 per cent.
The remaining topmost countries that come under the fastest-growing population are mentioned below:
Burundi with a population of 11.8 million and projected population of 17.2 million (45 per cent), Zambia with a population of 17.7 million and projected population of 25.8 million (45.8 per cent), Syrian Arab Republic with 18.3 million and projected population of 26.6 million (45.4 per cent), Chad 15.4 million and 22.2 million (44.2 per cent), Burkina Faso 20.3 million and 28.9 million (42.4 per cent), Mali 19.4 million and 27.5 million (41.8 per cent), Tanzania 59.1 million and 83.7 million (41.6 per cent), Somalia 15.2 million and 21.5 million (41.4 per cent), The Gambia 2.2 million and 3.1 million (40.9 per cent), Uganda 44.1 million and 61.6 million (39.7 per cent), Mozambique 30.5 million and 42.4 million (39 per cent), Gabon 2.1 million and 2.9 million (38.1 per cent), South Sudan 13.0 million and 17.9 million (37.7 per cent), Comoros 0.8 million and 1.1 million (37.5 per cent), and on the 20th position Guinea with a population of 11.9 million and projected population of 16.3 per cent (37 per cent).
-  Bacci, M. L. (2017).A concise history of world population. John Wiley & Sons.
-  Uniyal, S., Paliwal, R., Kaphaliya, B., & Sharma, R. K. (2020). Human Overpopulation: Impact on Environment. InMegacities and Rapid Urbanization: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice(pp. 20-30). IGI Global.
-  Garg, S. (2020). Impact of overpopulation on land use pattern. InMegacities and Rapid Urbanization: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice(pp. 1-19). IGI Global.
-  Singh, R. P., Singh, A., & Srivastava, V. (Eds.). (2016).Environmental issues surrounding human overpopulation. IGI Global.
-  Babones, S. (2018). India may be the world’s fastest growing economy, but regional disparity is a serious challenge.
-  Kaneda, Toshiko, Genevieve Dupuis, and Kristin Bietsch. "2018 World Population Data Sheet."Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau. Accessed September13 (2018): 2018.