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Sleep plays a vital role in healing and repairing our body and maintaining the overall physical health and well-being of a person. According to a study published in the journal Lancet, taking a night sleep after the COVID-19 vaccination can help in the early-phase production of coronavirus-specific antibodies, compared to staying awake in the night after the vaccination. 
T-cells are the immune cells that help secrete interferon gamma cytokines which are critical to activating both adaptive and innate immunity. T-cells are also the primary activator of macrophages, specialised cells which are responsible for detecting, engulfing and destroying harmful microbes.
Sleep alone cannot be considered a prominent factor in determining the efficacy of vaccines because the association between the two is still unclear. However, some studies do talk about the significant benefits of sleep on the immune system after getting vaccinated.
In this article, we will discuss the importance of a good night's sleep in the context of the COVID-19 vaccination. Take a look.
A Good Night's Sleep And Vaccine Efficacy
The efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines such as Covaxin, Covishield, Pfizer-BioNTech and many others developed till date have yet been a point of debate, as they were developed in a short time frame, considering the emergency of the pandemic and increasing mortality.
Despite the swift development of these vaccines, they have shown promising results in reducing mortality and controlling the coronavirus pandemic to some extent in many countries.
Previous studies based on other vaccines suggest that sleep duration at the time of vaccination is positively linked to immunity. In a JAMA published study, it was observed that people who had four consecutive nights of sleep but with a restriction of four hours have less antibodies, compared to those without such sleep deficits. The result was observed after 10 days of vaccination against the seasonal influenza virus. 
A study published in the journal BMC Immunology has shown that insufficient sleep in the night following the 2009 HINI influenza virus vaccination caused reduced early-phase production of HINI-specific antibodies. 
Another study has shown that short sleep duration may negatively affect the antibodies response and count against vaccine-antigens, and make people more susceptible to infectious diseases. 
How Does Sleep Affect Vaccine Efficacy?
Sleep after vaccination may help boost the virus-specific adaptive cellular immunity. In comparison to wakefulness, sleep in the night following vaccination can help double the immune cells specific to the virus, along with providing a range of immune response against the pathogen. 
Also, sleeping in the night following the vaccination can help increase interferon gamma cytokines in the body. These gamma cytokines help inhibit the replication of viruses and activate immunity against them, thus protecting the body against virus-induced complications.
Sleep And Immune System
According to a study, sleep and circadian rhythmicity (a natural internal process that regulates the sleep and wake cycle) can have a strong influence on the immune system of the body. This is due to the interaction between the central nervous system and immune system through neurotransmitters, hormones and cytokines. 
Sleep after vaccination may play a vital role in the formation of immunological memory by increasing antigen-specific antibodies.
Considering the immune response of COVID-19 vaccines, the timing of vaccination also plays an important role. Researchers say that administration of COVID-19 vaccines in the morning might result in higher antibodies count in people, compared to night-time such as in the case of night-time workers. The data needs more research. 
Advice For COVID-19 Vaccination
- Government bodies should highlight the importance of sleep after the COVID-19 vaccination process. 
- People who do night shifts should be advised to avoid getting the vaccine on shift days.
- If vaccination is planned during the hospitalization, factors such as sleep duration, stress due to illness and medical care of the patient should be considered as these may directly affect the sleep amount and quality and thus, the effect of the vaccine on the body.
- People with sleep problems can consider rescheduling the vaccination dates or consult a medical expert to ensure a better outcome after the vaccination.
- Strategies should be prepared to help people establish a sleep routine, balance their work-life at home, maintain a quiet place and limit caffeine and alcohol to promote a good night's sleep after the vaccination.
As per some data available to date on the benefits of sleep against COVID-19 vaccines, extending sleep duration at the time of vaccination can help boost immunity to a great extent. However, there is no evidence indicating that sleep problems like sleep apnea and poor sleep quality are related to reduced antibody responses against vaccination.
Also, in some healthy adults, sleep loss in the night after COVID-19 vaccination may be a minor concern with respect to the vaccine's efficacy while in people with a weak immune system, extending sleep duration during the night after the vaccination can help ensure a better immune response, which may potentially contribute to reducing the COVID-19 vaccine complications.