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Yellow fungus infection is a new type of fungal infection that is making news around the world, after black and white fungus. This post-COVID complication is known to be more life-threatening than the latter two fungal infections and experts suggest seeking immediate medical attention in case symptoms begin to appear.
As per reports, the first case of yellow fungus infection was detected by Dr BP Tyagi, an ENT (Ear-Nose-Throat) specialist on Monday in Ghaziabad, a district in Uttar Pradesh. According to the doctor, the patient who is seeking treatment for yellow fungus is also infected with black and white fungus.
Let's know more about symptoms, causes, treatments and other details of yellow fungus.
Causes Of Yellow Fungus Infection
Yellow fungus is primarily known to be caused due to poor hygiene. Experts say that it is mainly known to affect patients who are undergoing treatment or recovering from COVID-19.
Fungi is a microorganism that lives everywhere, including human skin and multiplies in warm and humid conditions causing infection. Therefore, it is very important to maintain cleanliness in the surroundings of your house, discard old food items and maintain proper disposal of faecal matter to prevent the growth of pathogens like fungi and bacteria.
Additionally, the humidity of the house also plays an important role. Too much humidity can create a friendly environment for fungi and promote their multiplication. Therefore, it is necessary to measure humidity at all times and maintain a proper humid condition.
The risk of yellow fungus is also known to increase due to overuse of steroid, antimicrobial medications, immune-suppressing drugs and poor use of oxygen.
Symptoms Of Yellow Fungus Infection
To date, some of the known symptoms of yellow fungus associated with COVID-19 include:
- Damage to the body's internal organs
- Facial deformity as swelling of one side of the face, making a patient unable to open eyes.
- Formation of pus
- Red sunken eyes
- Slower healing of wounds
- Bleeding from the nose
- Blood in the urine
- Acute lethargy
- Loss of appetite
- Sudden weight loss
Complications Of Yellow Fungus Infection
If not treated early, COVID-19 associated yellow fungus can cause complications such as:
- Organ failure
- Serous leakage of pus
- Prolonged treatment for COVID-19
Why Is Yellow Fungus Infection Fatal Than Black And White Fungus?
Yellow fungus is considered fatal compared to black and white fungus because it starts internally in the body and may lead to damage to vital organs. Delay in the treatment can make the symptoms worse and treatment difficult, thus causing organ failure and premature death of cells and tissues in the body.
Therefore, COVID-19 patients must reach out to medical experts as soon as they notice the symptoms.
Is Yellow Fungus A Reptile Origin?
According to a study, Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV), a species of fungus, is known to be an emerging cause of fungal disease in reptiles in recent years. These fungi are the cause of deep and superficial fungal infections or mycoses in reptiles and are also known to affect other pets and many captive and wild animals. 
As reptiles have gained popularity as pets in recent years, a few cases of fungal infection in humans from reptiles have been reported in countries like Asia, North America, Australia and Europe.
The study has shown that various Chrysosporium-related fungi like N. hominis, N. infrequens and N. obscura occasionally infect humans and cause conditions such as lesions, inguinal nodes and abscesses, especially in immunocompromised individuals.
This mitigates zoonotic disease as it is transferred from pet reptiles like green iguanas or bearded dragons to humans. In some studies, Chrysosporium-related fungi have also caused lung problems and inflammation in the brain.
The CDC also describes Nannizziopsis as keratinophilic ascomycetous fungi, a fungi type that can cause fatal dermal infections in various reptiles, mainly in captivity. A case report of nine humans infected with the fungal infection due to N. obscura, a species of Nannizziopsis have been reported. 
Treatments Of Yellow Fungus Infection
For the treatment of yellow fungus in COVID patients, it is essential to perform a hygienic medical practice to prevent the growth of fungal infection. If a patient has already developed the symptoms, it could be treated with Amphotericin B injection, a medication known to treat fatal fungal infections. 
As per the data available to date on yellow fungus, it could be the post complication of black and white fungus, which itself are complications of COVID-19. Though it is known to be more fatal than black and white fungus, there is very little data available.
Maintaining a hygienic environment in your surroundings and paying more attention to hygiene while seeking treatment or recovering from COVID-19 can avoid this complication.