6.Hirsutism: This is the clinical name for excessive hair growth. Any condition that increases the blood level of testosterone, male sex hormones or androgens results in hirsutism. The most probable cause would be PCOD (Polycystic ovarian disease), rarer causes being late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LOCAH) or androgen secreting tumor to name a few. Drugs such as oral contraceptives containing progesterone, Cyclosporine, Minoxidil, Phenytoin, Androgens, Penicillamine, heavy metals, or Acetazolamide can cause hirsutism.
7.Irregular cycles : Any hormonal problem can affect the normal menstrual cycles. The common reasons being disturbance in thyroid imbalance, polycystic ovaries, pituitary hormonal imbalance. Please do not forget there are so many non-hormonal causes for menstrual cycles to get upset.
8.Infertility: This means not being able to become pregnant. One-third of infertility cases are female factor infertility, one-third are male factor, and the remaining third involve problems on both sides, or unexplained causes. Ovulatory defects due to polycystic ovaries can cause infertility. Abnormal thyroid hormones can cause problem with conception.
9.Headache / Visual disturbance : The pituitary gland is very close to the eye nerve. Any swelling or enlargement in the pituitary gland caused by hormonal problem can affect the vision.
This can also cause headache. Again headache can be non-specific manifestation of so many different diseases, from eye related problems, migraine, etc. Commonest causes of headache in the general population are stress and refractory problem.
In the same way commonest cause of visual disturbance is change in refraction.
10. Breast discharge: Prolactin secreted from the pituitary gland is responsible for lactation. Increased levels of prolactin can cause galactorrhoea - abnormal milk secretion. Up to around 25-30% of women with polycystic ovaries can also have raised prolactin levels.
11. Erectile dysfunction: This is due to low levels of the male hormone testosterone;
can be due to a primary testicular problem or due to a problem in the pituitary gland. Commonest cause remains stress and fear of failure.
12. Increased thirst / urination: Increased frequency of urination and excessive thirst is most commonly due to high sugar. A rarer cause can be due to a deficiency of a pituitary hormone and vasopressin, caused by hormonal problems which is responsible for maintaining the water balance in the body.
13. Hot flushes: Hot flushes are due to vasomotor instability and are usually related to the female climacteric. The cause of hot flushes would seem to be related to very high levels of gonadotrophins (pituitary hormones) as the ovaries fail but there is still much that is not understood about their etiology.
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